Psoriasis or psoriasis is a chronic disease, the structure of the skin and its appendages: hair and nails. Characterized by periods of worsening condition (relapses) and temporal well-being, if the symptoms of the disease are becoming less and less. This disease is not contagious and the Patient is not a danger to others. Because of the emergence of psoriasis is not on micro-organisms.
Psoriasis often occurs within the age of 15-45 years. He is more prone to people with light skin. In developed countries, the number of Psoriasis patients achieved 2-4% of the population. Everyone suffers from a 25-year-old the inhabitants of the earth on all continents.
This Problem is a large number of medical facilities. So the psoriasis as the disease. But still the disease is not fully understood. Officially, it is considered incurable, and raises many questions.
Psoriasis is called the immune cells of the body. You rise from the lower to the upper layers of the skin, to inflammation, Proliferation of cells of the Epidermis and the formation of small capillaries.
Symptoms of psoriasis on the skin very differently. In most cases, this disease is the appearance of red patches psoriatic Plaques caused. They are dry to the touch, rise above the surface of the skin and the white flower is covered.
Types of psoriasis
The disease is divided into two large groups: pustular and non-pustulous psoriasis.
- ordinary (vulgar), or simple psoriasis (plaque-like Psoriasis, chronic stable Psoriasis)
- erythrodermic Psoriasis or Psoriasis Erythro dermal
- Pustular Psoriasis background Tsumbush or generalized pustular Psoriasis
- palmoplantary psoriasis (pustular Psoriasis extremity, chronic persistent palmoplantary pustulosis)
- annulary pustular Psoriasis
- Palmar-plantar psoriasis
- herpetiform psoriatic Impetigo
In addition, such types of Psoriasis can
- seborrheic psoriasis
- Psoriasis flexor surfaces and skin creases
- Napkin Psoriasis
- Psoriasis caused by drugs
To the degree that such forms of Psoriasis can
- Just – beaten by less than 3 % of the skin.
- Medium – 3-10% of the skin covered with Plaques.
- Hard – there is joint damage or implied by more than 10% of the skin.
The causes of psoriasis
To date, there are no clear-cut answer to the question: "why is psoriasis?" appears. Scientists have different theories.
Psoriasis is an autoimmune disease. Based on a malfunction of the immune system. Immune cells, the killer T cells and helper T cells, whose function is to protect the body against viruses, bacteria and tumor cells, for any reason, to penetrate into the upper layers of the skin. Here you will find produce inflammatory mediators – substances, the "shooting down" the inflammatory response. Your result is an increased cell division of the skin and its multiplication (Proliferation).
Psoriasis is keratinocytes, is a disease caused by the violation of growth, division and maturation of skin cells. The result of such changes in the skin, is an attack of immune cells, T-lymphocytes and macrophages to the diseased cells of the skin.
Factors contributing to the development of Psoriasis
The doctors made a series of factors that can trigger the occurrence of the disease. Of course the majority of Psoriasis occurs when the body, a plurality of such conditions.
- Hereditary Predisposition. There is a Version that the genes that are responsible for the immune system and the function of T-lymphocytes are carriers of disease. So in the case of the parents, the manifestations of Psoriasis, the chances of children with the same symptoms suffering.
- Thin dry skin. It was found that people with such features of the skin suffer more often than those with oily skin and well-moisturized. This is probably due to the protective functions of sebaceous glands and the structural properties of the skin.
- External irritating factors. A high percentage of patients among those people who are constantly in contact with alcoholic solutions, solvents, household cleaners, cosmetics (lotions, creams for the hands).
- Excessive Hygiene – excessive love for the purity also undermines protective properties of the skin. Soap, shower gel and a washcloth to wash the natural protective barrier, and microscopic injuries.
- Bad habits – alcohol, Smoking and drugs are a bad influence on the condition of the skin. Your diet and blood supply deteriorates.
- HIV – Aids patients more susceptible to the development of Psoriasis. The scientists can not explain this phenomenon. The fact that Psoriasis is called to increased activity of lymphocytes and in the case of Aids, their number reduced.
- Medications – taking certain medications can trigger the disease. Among them are: Beta-blockers, antidepressants, anticonvulsants and antimalarial medications, Lithium carbonate.
- Infections (fungi and staphylococci). Often there were cases when the psoriasis appeared immediately after fungal infections or diseases caused by streptococci.
- Removals – change of climate or time of the year, the deterioration of the environment is a start up mechanism for this disease.
- Stress strong emotional shock or physical stress (prolonged hypothermia, overheating, crashing) before the appearance of the first symptoms of psoriasis.
- Injuries – a long-lasting effect on the skin: pressure, friction, improve the combability. Such regular injuries are also a cause for the first psoriatic Plaques.
- Allergies – allergic skin rashes on the skin and the processes that will be increased in all layers of the skin, the risk of disease.
What are the symptoms and signs of psoriasis?
Psoriasis is a systemic disease that affects only the skin and nails. Of the joints, tendons, and spine, immune, nervous and endocrine system suffer. Often, the kidneys, the liver, the thyroid gland are affected. The Patient feels a strong weakness, suffer from chronic fatigue and Depression. Due to these complex effects on the organism, the disease in recent years, commonly referred to as the disease of Psoriasis.
But all the same basic symptoms of the disease occur on the skin layers. The name "psoriasis" conveys pretty accurately the symptoms of Psoriasis. The first manifestations are often the papules are pink or bright red, the correct rounded Form, covered with scales – psoriatic Plaques. They are symmetrical, the skin, especially on the extensor sides, the back and the head. But all the areas of the skin and mucus can beat skin of the genital organs. The size of a few millimeters, in the initial phase, up to ten centimeters and more.
Depending on the properties of the skin rash, taking such forms of Psoriasis:
- Item Psoriasis – the size of the elements of a small pinhead.
- Guttate Psoriasis papules in the Form of tears and can reach sizes of grain.
- Coin-Psoriasis – Plaques grow up to 3-5 mm and have rounded edges.
Also, the shapes of the rash to distinguish, when its elements have the Form of rings, arches and garlands, cards with serrated edges.
Papules covered with bloom, which can be easily removed. It consists of dead cells of the Epidermis. Psoriasis Plaques start with scales from the center, then the Plaque spreads to the edges. Its casual and bright look due to the fact that the dead cells infused with filled intervals with air. The elements can be formed, Rosé Ring is a Phase of the inflammation, the platelet-derived growth zone. The skin around the elements of the rash has not changed.
Under the flowering undetectable smooth, shiny, bright red surface. These blood capillaries with thin walls, covered with thin foil. They are well visible because of the dilution of the upper layers of the skin. The normal structure of the skin is not disturbed, the cells, Mature keratinocytes, and do not have time to differentiate normal.
Psoriasis of the head Psoriasis Plaques, which protrude significantly, the surrounding skin is skin. They are densely covered with scales, reminiscent of the scales. The hair is not overwhelmed. Skin rashes can skin just under the hair, but also on the smooth, on the neck and behind the ears. These changes explain the active division of the keratinocytes on the affected areas
Psoriasis feet and hands causes a marked thickening of the Horny layer of the skin in these areas of the body. The skin is thick, rough. It is often by dragging cracks. This is an intensive division of cells that multiply 8 times faster than usual, but not deleted in a timely manner with the surface of the skin.
Psoriasis nails differs due to the variety of symptoms. But the greatest significance of the two main types of lesion of the nail plate:
- According to the kind of "thimble". On to the nail plate, small dimples are formed, in a similar way to the traces of needle-stick injuries.
- According to the type of the onychomycosis. The lesions are similar to fungus on the nails. The nails thicken, change color and peel. The nail plate is visible psoriatic papule, surrounded by a red border. It has a sort of oil patch, light-permeable through the nail.
Symptoms and signs of psoriasis depends on the stage of the disease, which follow one another cyclically in the course of the year. So in the case of most patients, there is the "Winter" type of the disease, when the degradation falls on the autumn and Winter. Improvement in the summer is due to the fact that UV light has the sun has a therapeutic effect. But some patients suffer from "summer" type.
Such a Phase of history can of Psoriasis:
- Progressive emergence of new elements, the active growth of the existing Plaques, pink Zone of growth around you, intense flaking and itching.
- stationary stop of the growth of the lesions, no new lesions, small wrinkle of the upper layer of the skin around the Psoriasis Plaques.
- regressing– no peeling, the disappearance of the Plaques and the formation of the phases in their place, pigmentation, show the cessation of the process.
How to see the rash in psoriasis?
Every body is different and reacts differently to the disease. So the nature of the lesions can be very different. This explains the diversity of forms and types of Psoriasis.
However, the majority of people have the symptoms of Psoriasis are similar. These patches of red psoriatic Plaques, 1-3 mm above the level of the healthy skin. Their formation is due to the fact that the cells of the surface layer of the skin – keratinocytes, not very actively, to tire coming to it, and a full-fledged skin cells. As a result of this increased pathological growth of the individual parts of the skin thicken. This occurs under the influence of the fact that the immune cells secrete chemicals that cause inflammation in the layers of the skin.
The spots are red. And if you have the top scales Psoriasis Plaques, then starts to the surface with the blood of Tau. This buckle is due to the fact that under the influence of T-lymphocytes and immune cells, which occurs in dendritic cells, the increased formation of new blood vessels under the metal. You have pretty thin walls. There may be bleeding psoriatic Plaques caused in the case of the slightest damage.
Sometimes, through the walls of these vessels, the lymph and the inflammatory exudate oozes. Here, bark on Blaschke thick, yellowish. Your surface damp to the touch.
The top tile can be covered in grey, silvery or yellowish Patina coated, which is a kind of Paraffin. That's how they got the name "Paraffin-lake". The dead skin cells, the rejection hurt, and they accumulate on the surface of the lesion of the skin.
Patches of flakes, more hot to the touch, than the Rest of the skin, can assume large proportions. Often the Patient is strong itching feeling at this point. This is due to the fact that on the background of the inflammatory process occurs in the cascade of Neuro-reflex reactions and allergic reaction.
A kind of elements of papules. These small elements of the rash are similar to tubercles. Size about 1 mm. In the middle is not a cavity, filled with content. Often they are on the knee and elbow joints. They remain even in times when the disease goes back.
The first Plaques form in those places where the skin is more dry and in contact with household chemicals and detergents – in the open areas of the hands, the neck. You can extremities on all parts of the body: on the scalp, face, trunk, genitals, buttocks,. In contrast to fungal diseases, Psoriasis outbreaks arise in the axils, and the natural folds, where the skin moist longer and oily. In some forms of the disease, there are only a few tokens does not increase in size. In the case of Palmar-plantar Form of defeat are only in these areas.
During the exacerbations of the elements of the rash gradually grow in width and merge with the neighboring tiles. In periods of improvement (Remission) patch start since the middle of educate. After the ring purchase form, and can disappear completely. According to the Plaques on the body there is a trace of pigmentation. It can be significantly lighter or darker than the surrounding areas of the skin. After the person suggests, the color of the skin usually evens out.