With the modern development of medicine and much research being carried out, scientists cannot fully determine the real causes of the development of scaly lichen. Psoriasis is a disorder of the skin and tissues that surround the joints. The disease is characterized by a non-infectious course, with papules and red spots that tend to fuse. These formations are dry, scaly, protruding above the skin surface and represent a chronic, localized process. Microscopy reveals significant numbers of keratinocytes, cells of the immune system (T-lymphocytes and macrophages), with profuse proliferation of the vascular network.
Psoriasis and its causes are being actively studied with this development of medicine, but no one determines the ultimate cause of occurrence.
Scientists identify several main bases for the development of pathology:
- Genetics- The hereditary theory of the occurrence of psoriasis is based on the fact that in ancestors or close relatives who have this pathology, the risk of its occurrence in subsequent generations is 25%, if one of the parents is sick. With the development of the disease in both parents, the risk of its occurrence in the offspring increases to 70%. It is possible for a healthy child to be born to sick parents, but after a while the disease develops in him under the influence of the above factors.
- Immunodeficiency- When examining the histological material of patients with psoriasis, scientists found an excessive accumulation of diseased immune cells in the layers of the epidermis. At the same time, specific antibodies were found in the surface layers of the epidermis - Munro micro-abscesses (accumulation of intercellular fluid, leukocytes, macrophages). A general blood test shows an increase in white blood cell count (T-helper), which is all indicative of the disease's autoimmunity.
- Viral lesion- in this case it means an infection with retroviruses. This strain introduces its own tRNA chain into the host cell and replaces its genetic code with a viral one. Which manifests itself in an excessive production and multiplication of immature and undifferentiated cells of the dermis.
An interesting fact is that, according to the autoimmune theory, antipsoriatic treatment aims to reduce the number of immune cells, including T-helpers. If psoriasis is present in people infected with HIV / AIDS, the number of these cells drops to the limit values and the risk of developing psoriasis increases. Further study of this fact can completely refute the autoimmune theory of the development of psoriasis.
Factors in psoriasis development
What causes psoriasis? There are several provoking factors that have a negative effect on the body:
- Stress- This factor is the trigger for psoriasis eruptions and the ultimate connection, under the influence of which the rash decreases. This factor is one of the main factors, since the occurrence of psoriasis occurs precisely in 50% of cases due to extreme fatigue, psychological trauma and nervous stress. With the onset of psoriasis remission, any mental shock can provoke a relapse.
- Infections- a group of diseases in the development of which primary foci of psoriasis rash appeared. Such diseases include: all upper respiratory tract infectious diseases, bacterial and fungal infections that affect the skin, mononucleosis. In patients with psoriasis, the presence of an increased amount of pathogenic microflora (beta-hemolytic streptococci and Staphylococcus aureus) was determined. Candidiasis is a fungal infectious process in which psoriasis most often develops.
- External influence- A large number of patients associate psoriasis with the result of external physical factors. The most common are: mechanical trauma to the skin, burns, hypothermia, and frostbite;
- Endocrinopathies- This group of diseases is associated with a dysfunction of the entire body. This factor is most common in females, as hormone levels change frequently in connection with adulthood, pregnancy, menstrual cycle, and menopause. In patients with diabetes mellitus, the metabolism is significantly disturbed, while a constant excess of glucose negatively affects human tissues and organs and provokes the development of other diseases.
- Toxins- act as another cause of psoriasis in the body. Its occurrence is associated with food poisoning, work in factories or factories, the abuse of certain products (citrus fruits, coffee, chocolate). Alcohol and smoking, with their toxic effects, cause many diseases, including psoriasis;
- The pathogenetic effect includes the intake ofdrugs.It has been shown that a small number of patients developed psoriasis while taking the following drugs: NSAIDs, beta blockers, fortified drugs (vitamins C, B, D), cytostatics, antibiotics (cephalosporins).
Prevention of psoriasis
Many factors contribute to the development of psoriasis. The basic theory has not yet been established and preventive measures should be comprehensive and comprehensive. Patients should rethink their lifestyle. If necessary, change your place of residence to a more environmentally friendly area.
It is recommended to avoid stressful situations. It is possible to take antidepressants and sedatives. The diet should include more fiber, non-allergenic fruits and vegetables, meat and fish. In the treatment of comorbid conditions, it is imperative to abandon bad habits and consult a doctor to replace therapy. Take treatment courses in specialized sanatoriums.